The Nourished Kitchen


In short:

For those who have limited time, I most sincerely recommend The Nourished Kitchen: Farm-to-Table recipes for the Traditional Foods Lifestyle. I envision that I will buy it as a gift often via our Amazon affiliation, and will refer to it regularly myself.

My Review

On a personal note, I am sincerely delighted and honored to write a review for Jenny McGruther’s new book. Jenny is a friend whom I have enjoyed hosting in San Francisco and visiting in Crested Butte, Colorado where she lives with her husband and son. She is a consistently supportive community member. This book is most definitely a valuable addition to my library of traditional foods books, which includes Nourishing Traditions, Full Moon Feast and Wild Fermentation. I was touched to see Nourishing Our Children listed as a real food advocacy group on page 303.

While my personal connection to the author has left me with a sense of pride, and tears in my eyes when I opened the package containing her book, it isn’t the basis of my recommendation. If I didn’t know Jenny, I would still highly recommend this book.

An Educational Resource

The Nourished Kitchen is much more than a book of over 160 recipes. It offers a fair amount of information about the foundational elements of traditional food preparation. The chapters are categorized by where the food comes from: the garden, the pasture, the range, the waters, the fields, the wild, the orchard and the larder. Jenny explains that the philosophy behind the Nourished Kitchen is a focus on that which is sustainable, balanced, unprocessed, traditionally prepared and involved.

I think the book is very well-organized. Beyond the recipes, there are passages in every chapter that share relevant anecdotes from Jenny’s own experiences, as well as explanations and recommendations about eggs, raw milk, working with sourdough, finding good olive oil and the like. The book is replete with a chart that lists grains, whether or not they contain gluten, what their flavor is, what nutrients they contain and how to prepare them. There is a similar chart on beans and lentils. I anticipate that Jenny’s glossary of terms and resources will be helpful to many.

I see this book as an educational resource – it covers the why as well as the how.

I very much appreciate that Jenny lists exact measurements – 3 tablespoons, 6 ounces, rather than “small, medium and large” … a request I would like to make of all recipe authors. See one of her recipes that I published with permission:  Roasted beet and walnut salad with kombucha vinaigrette. You’ll learn how to prepare organ meats, yogurt, sourdough bread, broth, and what to do with salmon roe, rabbit and bone marrow in what I would describe as unique and delicious ways. I anticipate that whether you are new to these dietary principles or have been following them for 10 years, like I have, this book will teach you something new.

As someone who works as a professional photographer, I found Jenny’s photos to be beautifully captured. Up until now I have offered Nourishing Traditions as a gift to anyone I think may have an interest. I now have another book that I think will serve to introduce the dietary principles that are at the heart of Nourishing Our Children’s mission.


Bravo, Jenny. I think you’ve written about and photographed traditional foods in a way that is most appetizing and nourishing … and I believe that it will invariably become a first step for those new to these concepts. I think your book will change lives and expand others, including my own.

Do you consider yours to be a Nourished Kitchen?

Please note that we serve as an affiliate for Amazon, in addition to allied organizations and individuals whose products and/or serves we recommend. In some cases, we receive referral bonuses or commissions for our promotional efforts. This enables us to sustain our educational efforts.


Filed under Book Reviews, Promotions

A Blessing Way Ceremony

We are all just walking each other home. – Ram Dass

On Saturday, I was invited to a blessing way ceremony for Lisa Cauthers, one of our community members who lives in the Portland area.  Lisa has written a blog post for us that I encourage you to read about what she wishes she knew before her first pregancy.

A modern blessing way ceremony is inspired by an old Navajo ceremony, which native Americans created to celebrate a woman’s rite of passage into motherhood. It is intended to help the woman prepare herself for the birth, emotionally, spiritually and mentally, and for the all important role of a new mother, whether for the first time or not. It is also known as a Mother Blessing and has been increasing in popularity as a non-denominational ritual. Blessing ways will vary, there is no set order or agenda per say beyond the intention to support the mother.   

Lisa gathered a circle of women she feels connected to, and I felt honored to be included. I found the experience to be affirming, empowering and inspiring. I hadn’t intended to document the occasion so all I had is my iPhone, which served to capture a few moments I’ll share with you now. After we introduced ourselves, enjoyed some food and socialized, the ceremony began with each of us adding a bead to a string that Lisa can use as a necklace or bracelet.


The bead ceremony

We had been asked to bring a bead. While we added our beads, we shared our wishes for Lisa. Some of us expressed what was in our hearts in that moment, others came prepared with a quote, such as Cassie Meadows who read: “There is power that comes to women when they give birth. They don’t ask for it, it simply invades them. Accumulates like clouds on the horizon and passes through, carrying the child with it.” – Sheryl Feldman. I wished Lisa the confidence to know that she can do this, even though it may stretch her. What I like about a bead ceremony is that everyone can be involved, even if they don’t attend the blessing way event. Folks may send their blessings and have their bed added to the string at any time before the birth.

Flowers, Water and Candles

Cassie, our hostess, lead what followed: Lisa was crowned with a wreath of flowers, soaked her feet in a warm tub of epsom salts and lavender, and wrote down characteristics she hoped for her baby such as robustly healthy, cheerful, confident and full of love. She wrote these on small candles that we each took home to light once we are notified that she is in labor. We then all wrote a word or 2 of encouragement on a felt banner comprised of colorful triangular shapes for her to hang in the bedroom that she plans to give birth in. I wrote “I can.” We ended the ceremony with cake and gifts, mainly in the form of donations to a cloth diaper fund. Lisa plans to do elimination communication as she did with her first child but, will need some cloth diapers even so. I presented her with one of my favorite books: Super Nutrition for Babies.

Blessing Way
There are a number of other rituals one may choose to engage in:

  • The cord ceremony – involves binding everyone’s wrists with a single cord of red wool or some other yarn. Everyone then keeps the string around their wrists until they hear that mother is giving birth. Then they all cut the cord as a symbol of unity. Plus the cord is a way to remind those who are wearing it to be thinking of the prospective mother.
  • Hair brushing and/or braiding is considered a wonderful way to nurture and pamper the mother-to-be. And, if there is an heirloom brush, it can act as a way to connect the mother to her female ancestors. By adorning her hair with flowers you might help connect her to nature.
  • A plaster belly cast may be a fun idea for a blessingway, as well as serving as cherished keepsake. A kit can be ordered to create ease! Here are some options: Proudbody Basic Pregnancy Belly Cast Kit, Proudbody Deluxe Pregnancy Belly Cast Kit and Pearhead Belly Casting Kit.
  • Henna which can be described as body art, typically on the belly and/or hands is another popular blessing way ritual. There are a number of traditions associated with henna outlined in this book.
  • Read more in these articles: What is a Blessingway? and Planning a Blessingway, as well as in this book Blessingways: A Guide to Mother-Centered Baby Showers–Celebrating Pregnancy, Birth, and Motherhood

Have you attended, hosted or been the focus of a blessing way ceremony? What was your experience? 

Please note that we serve as an affiliate for Amazon, in addition to allied organizations and individuals whose products and/or serves we recommend. In some cases, we receive referral bonuses or commissions for our promotional efforts. This enables us to sustain our educational efforts.


Filed under Pregnancy

We seek your creative contributions.

Earth Outline

Artist and environmental educator Nancy Judd of Recycle Runway creates couture fashion from trash as an innovative way to provide education about conservation. I am collaborating with my friend of over 25 years on a PowerPoint, study guide and e-book called: Creative Sustainability: educational materials for preserving our planet. We welcome you to view this introductory preview, still in progress, that shares the vision behind our project.

We would like to use illustrations of the earth on the cover pages of each piece of the curriculum, as well as for the numerous section breaks.

We seek your creative interpretations.

We envision this will be a fun activity for your family members!

All those whose illustrations we choose to use will receive all of The Creative Sustainability educational materials that we will launch in the a few months. In addition, we are offering Nourishing Our Children‘s PowerPoint, study guide, e-book, and food pyramid comparison chart as a .pdf as a token of our appreciation! The donation request we will be asking for all these items will be a 150.00.

Directions for a hard copy, scanned version

  1. Here is an outline of the earth that we ask you and/or your children to use as the foundation of your illustration.
  2. Children are encouraged to use a printed version as a base to create a mosaic-like collage of the earth with found content in your home that is flat such as cut-outs from catalogs, magazines, mail, stamps, construction and other colored paper, fabric, wrapping paper, etc. Items that you may otherwise recycle. A glue stick would likely be idea to secure the different cut or torn shapes into the outline of the earth, so that it remains recognizable as such. Crayons and markers would also be welcome.
  3. Here are some examples of illustrations created out of a mosaic-like collage of found papers: rooster, alphabet, apple, and earth. The ocean areas don’t have to be blue and the land areas don’t have to be green or brown, but both can be.
  4. Once complete, scan the image, rather than photographing it, and email it to us at our email address listed on our contact page. Please write Creative Sustainability in the subject line. We prefer the illustations as a .png file, but high resolution jpegs will work!

Directions for a digitally created version

  1. Adults and/or those children who may have the technical capacity to create this illustration on a computer, are asked to use this outline of the earth and choose from amongst Nancy Judd’s detailed photographs of her couture fashion “sculptures” to use digitally.
  2. We would love to see mosaic-like collages created out of the photographed sections of Nancy’s fashions that you choose, so that the outline of the earth is covered with different pieces from those photographs. Please feel have about 25% of illustration be shapes of color if you’d like.
  3. The ocean areas don’t have to be blue and the land areas don’t have to be green or brown, but both can be.
  4. Once the illustration is complete, email it to us at our email address listed on our contact page. Please write Creative Sustainability in the subject line. We prefer the illustrations as a .png file, but high resolution jpegs will work!

We seek submissions by Friday, February 14 and are most, most grateful for your participation!


Filed under Activities, Nourishing Our Children

Grade B maple syrup – is it really better?


One of our First Step recommendations is to: “Replace sugar with natural sweeteners in moderation, such as raw local honey, Grade B maple syrup, pure maple sugar, molasses, dehydrated coconut nectar, coconut palm sugar, green powder stevia, rapadura and sucanat.”

When it comes to maple syrup, we’ve always recommended Grade B in accord with the Weston A. Price Foundation.

Sarah Pope asserts in a video that she created for the Foundation: “Be sure to seek out Grade B maple syrup, which is darker and richer in minerals and flavor than Grade A maple syrup. Grade B is also sometimes less expensive than Grade A. “B” stands for “Better” when it comes to maple syrup!”

I had read and accepted this list of health benefits of Grade B maple syrup:

“Grade B maple syrup is the most viscous concentration of the syrup. It is harvested during the end of the sap season, and resembles molasses more than its counterpart Grade A maple syrup. The potency and richness of Grade B maple syrup amplifies its health benefits.

Consumption of Grade B maple syrup is said to fortify the body with zinc. Apart from functioning as an antioxidant, the essential mineral strengthens the heart by replenishing and preserving endothelial cells.

Manganese and zinc, the predominant minerals in Grade B maple syrup, support immune system function by contributing to cell growth and maintaining healthy levels of white blood cells.

The two principal minerals in Grade B maple syrup have also been observed to contribute to male reproductive health. Manganese is involved in the production of male sex hormones, and zinc can help reduce prostate size.”

Yet, not everyone is in agreement that Grade B is better. 

Deep Mountain Maple explains, “Grade B has gained popularity in recent years as a table syrup. It is also well known for its beneficial use in a cleansing fast known as the Master Cleanse.

Although we are very happy that Stanley Burroughs, the author of The Master Cleanse, recognized the health benefits of pure maple syrup, we are disappointed that Mr. Burroughs did not really understand how maple syrup is made. He recommended Grade B syrup because he assumed, probably due to its dark color and intense flavor, that it was less refined than other maple syrups. However, no pure maple syrup is refined in any way whatsoever. All pure maple syrup contains many beneficial nutrients, including minerals such as potassium, magnesium, and iron. Traditionally, maple syrup is considered to be good for digestion and the circulatory system. It has fewer calories most other sweeteners and contains no fat at all.

At the Greenmarket, people often ask us which grade is best. The answer is, whichever one you like best!”

Nina Callaway similarly asserts that “Maple syrup grades have nothing to do with quality or nutrition. Instead, they simply refer to the color of the syrup, and thus, its flavor.”

The Massachusetts Maple Producers Association says,

It’s strictly a matter of personal choice. Ask yourself these questions: Which is better, white wine or red wine? Which is better, light beer or dark beer? Beer can probably be compared most easily to the different maple syrup grades/flavors. A light Pilsner beer has a light color and delicate flavor, while a Stout or Porter has a very dark color and strong flavor. It’s strictly a matter of personal choice, and there isn’t one grade of maple syrup that is “better” than another.

Shall we discontinue our recommendation of Grade B maple syrup as better?!

Meanwhile, Casey Seidenberg offers us this list on how to use maple syrup:

  1. Replace a cup of white sugar in recipes with a third-cup to a half-cup of maple syrup and reduce the recipe’s liquid measurement by a quarter-cup.
  2. Mix into a bowl of oatmeal, millet or quinoa for breakfast.
  3. Add to yogurt and fruit.
  4. Toast your own granola with olive oil and maple syrup.
  5. Drizzle on roasted sweet potatoes and squash.
  6. Combine with soy sauce and orange juice for a delicious chicken marinade.

I highly recommend this glaze for salmon:

  • 3/4 cup balsamic vinegar
  • 2 tablespoons maple syrup
  • 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
  • 1 clove garlic, peeled and smashed or chopped
  • Add peeled minced ginger to taste.

More recipes and background information in Maple Sugar: A Gift from the Indians.

Will you continue to buy Grade B maple syrup?

I will for the flavor alone.  Here are some of our recommended brands via our Amazon affiliation: Coombs Family Farms 100% Pure Organic Maple Syrup, Hidden Springs Maple Organic Vermont Maple Syrup and NOW Foods Organic Maple Syrup.

Please note that we serve as an affiliate for Amazon, in addition to allied organizations and individuals whose products and/or serves we recommend. In some cases, we receive referral bonuses or commissions for our promotional efforts. This enables us to sustain our educational efforts.


Filed under First Steps, Nourishing Our Children, Recipes



Locavore at what cost?

I pride myself on being a locavore … most of the time.

Over the holiday, I experienced intense flu symptoms. My assistant Carlie set out to make me elderberry syrup which I had seen recommended by many parents in our community. Elderberries, which are also know as sambucus or sambucol, have long been used to prevent and treat the symptoms of the common cold and flu. These berries are rich in anti-oxidant flavinoids and anti-inflammatory anthocyanin.

Since I value supporting the local community, Carlie went to the New Seasons in my neighborhood to buy elderberries. She discovered that they don’t carry them. I called Clary Sage Herbarium, also in my neighborhood in Portland and they had organic elderberries for 2.40 an ounce, which would have been 19.20 for the cup called for in the recipe we planned to follow. The woman whom I inquired with at the Herbarium explained that the relatively high cost was due to the fact that the elderberries were locally grown.

Organic elderberries are sold via our Amazon affiliation for .71 an ounce. They are sold via our Mountain Rose Herbs affiliation for just over 1.00 an ounce. Significantly less.

These are the kind of conundrums I face sometimes. Do I spend more to honor my desire to support a locally grown item from a local business or do I spend less to honor my commitment to my own financial sustainability. Of course, one purchase of this kind will not tip the balance one way or another but, these are the kind moments when I am not sure that I want to spend the money required to fully live into my values.

What do to with a microwave?

Here is another one. My new home in Portland came equipped with what others have described to me as a high quality  microwave. I don’t use a microwave, nor do we recommend that anyone else use one either. It is not built in so I am not stuck with it.

So, what do I do with it? Sell it, give it away, throw it away? I don’t necessarily want to earn money on an item we don’t recommend, but I question whether to give it away for others to use, when I don’t actually want them to use it? Do I throw it away and fill the landfill? Oy.

What guides your decisions?

I envision I am not alone as I face these moments of choice between different values. How have you decided what to do in moments like these?

Please note that we serve as an affiliate for Amazon, in addition to allied organizations and individuals whose products and/or serves we recommend. In some cases, we receive referral bonuses or commissions for our promotional efforts. This enables us to sustain our educational efforts.


Filed under Cost Savings, Nourishing Our Children

Is gluten the latest food villain?


The upcoming free online conference The Gluten Summit: A grain of truth that I registered for has me thinking about gluten. Apparently, this summit is the first of its kind. I was reflecting on how I had never even heard the word gluten until a few years ago and now “gluten-free” is an entire section in the grocery store.

If you have an interest in learning more, like I do, listen to the conference speakers November 11 – 17, 2013 by registering for free: Speakers feature Natasha Campbell-McBride of GAPS™, Dr. William Davis – the author of Wheat Belly, Dr. Tom O’Bryan, Dr. Mark Hyman and many others. If you would like to order the summit for lifetime access at a discount, do so here:

When I became aware of the Weston A. Price Foundation in 2004, I don’t recall that there was any mention of gluten-free recipes. Back then, the Wise Traditions annual conferences didn’t have a separate table for gluten and casein-free meals like we see now.

Today, I think virtually every one of us knows someone who identifies themselves as eating gluten-free, and we’ve all seen the influx of food products packaged with an identifying label. I have even seen several restaurants who offer gluten-free meals.

Whether it is needed or not, a significant demand has developed for gluten-free food in the United States. In fact, according to Advertising Age “gluten free” became a 4.2 billion dollar industry in the last year, despite the fact that there are the same number of celiac patients.

What is all the fuss about?!

Wikipedia explains that “A gluten-free diet is a diet that excludes foods containing gluten. Gluten is a protein complex found in wheat (including kamut and spelt), barley, rye and triticale. [I have seen oats added to this list in other descriptions.] A gluten-free diet is the only medically accepted treatment for celiac disease. Being gluten intolerant can often mean a person may also be wheat intolerant as well as suffer from the related inflammatory skin condition dermatitis herpetiformis, There are a smaller minority of people who suffer from wheat intolerance alone and are tolerant to gluten.”

A review paper in The New England Journal of Medicine listed 55 “diseases” that can be caused by eating gluten. These include irritable bowel disease, inflammatory bowel disease, anemia, cancer, fatigue, osteoporosis, canker sores, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and almost all other autoimmune diseases. Gluten is also linked to many psychiatric and neurological diseases, including anxiety, depression, dementia, schizophrenia, epilepsy, migraines and neuropathy (nerve damage). As some of you in our community are aware, it has also been linked to autism.

Dr. Mark Hyman, MD explains,

“We used to think that gluten problems or celiac disease were confined to children who had diarrhea, weight loss, and failure to thrive. Now we know you can be old, fat, and constipated and still have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. Gluten sensitivity is actually an autoimmune disease that creates inflammation throughout the body, with wide-ranging effects across all organ systems including your brain, heart, joints, digestive tract, and more. It can be the single cause behind many different “diseases.” To correct these diseases, you need to treat the cause – which is often gluten sensitivity – not just the symptoms.

Of course, that doesn’t mean that all cases of depression or autoimmune disease or any of these other problems are caused by gluten in everyone – but it is important to look for it if you have any chronic illness.

By failing to identify gluten sensitivity and celiac disease, we create needless suffering and death for millions of Americans. Health problems caused by gluten sensitivity cannot be treated with better medication. They can only be resolved by eliminating 100 percent of the gluten from your diet.”

Why are so many seemingly sensitive to gluten?

William Davis, a cardiologist in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who authored the book Wheat Belly, theorizes that modern varieties of wheat are to blame. He asserts that the wheat of the past didn’t make people sick.

“We know that celiac disease has doubled in the last 20 years,” Davis says. And since we known that humans have probably not changed, “the more likely culprit is the wheat itself.”

According to an NPR report, it’s true that about 40 years ago, breeders introduced new varieties of wheat that helped farmers increase their grain yields. Those varieties, which evolved out of the Green Revolution, now make up 90% of all the wheat that farmers grow worldwide.

Dr. Mark Hyman asserts in his article published in the Huffington Post that one of the reasons is our lack of genetic adaptation to grasses, and particularly gluten, in our diet. “Wheat was introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages, and 30 percent of people of European descent carry the gene for celiac disease (HLA DQ2 or HLA DQ8), which increases susceptibility to health problems from eating gluten.

American strains of wheat have a much higher gluten content (which is needed to make light, fluffy Wonder Bread and giant bagels) than those traditionally found in Europe. This super-gluten was recently introduced into our agricultural food supply and now has “infected” nearly all wheat strains in America.”

I returned to the NPR report to discover that the claim that modern wheat is somehow making people sick doesn’t sound right to Donald Kasarda, who has studied gluten proteins for more than 40 years as a research chemist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Kasarda says that when he combed through the scientific literature, he found no significant differences in gluten levels in wheat from the early part of the 20th century, compared with gluten levels from the latter half of the century.

Wheat Belly author Davis believes there are more subtle changes in the wheat plant that are leading to the problems. Needless to say, there’s no scientific agreement on this. And it appears that in the medical world, there’s a fair amount of pushback against the idea that modern wheat may be toxic to us.

To find out if you and yours are one of those suffering from an unidentified gluten sensitivity, consider following this procedure as proposed in this article:

The Elimination/Reintegration Diet

Eliminate all gluten for 2 to 4 weeks and see how you feel. Get rid of the following foods:

  • Gluten – which will be found in barley, rye, oats, spelt, kamut, wheat, and triticale. See for a complete list of foods that contain gluten, as well as often surprising and hidden sources of gluten.
  • Hidden sources such as soup mixes, salad dressings, sauces, as well as lipstick, certain vitamins, medications, stamps and envelopes you have to lick, and even Play-Doh.

Apparently, for this test to work you must eliminate 100% of the gluten from your diet – no exceptions, no hidden gluten, and not a single crumb of bread. I would recommend that you avoid the gluten-free aisles all together and simply eat traditionally-prepared real food, that is naturally gluten-free.

Then eat it again and see what happens. If you feel bad at all, you need to stay off gluten permanently. Dr. Hyman claims that this will teach you better than any test about the impact gluten has on your body. Nonetheless, he offers the following who feel compelled to test:

Testing for gluten sensitivity or celiac disease

There are gluten allergy/celiac disease tests that are available through Labcorp or Quest Diagnostics. All these tests help identify various forms of allergy or sensitivity to gluten or wheat. They will look for:

  • IgA anti-gliadin antibodies
  • IgG anti-gliadin antibodies
  • IgA anti-endomysial antibodies
  • Tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA and IgG in questionable cases)
  • Total IgA antibodies
  • HLA DQ2 and DQ8 genotyping for celiac disease (used occasionally to detect genetic suspectibility).
  • Intestinal biopsy – apparently rarely needed if gluten antibodies are positive

Again, if you have an interest in learning more about gluten, listen to the conference speakers November 11 – 17, 2013 by registering for free: If you would like to order the summit for lifetime access at a discount, do so here:


Is gluten something you avoid in your household?


Please note that we serve as an affiliate for Amazon, in addition to allied organizations and individuals whose products and/or serves we recommend. In some cases, we receive referral bonuses or commissions for our promotional efforts. This enables us to sustain our educational efforts.


Filed under Healing Protocols, Nourishing Our Children, Promotions

Learn for free … and at a 98% discount.

Podcast5 Free Podcasts!

These podcasts are offered complimentary as part of the Fall into Health Autumn Sale. No purchase is necessary. Listen to:

  1. Folks, This Ain’t Normal! Joel Salatin of Polyface Farms
  2. Chrono-Disruption: The Dark Side of Artificial Light. Chris Kresser of
  3. The 21-Day Sugar Detox. Diane Sanfilippo – Author of NY Times Bestseller, Practical Paleo
  4. Losing Weight and Healing Your Hormones in Your 40s. Vanessa Romero – Healthy Living How To
  5. Make It Paleo. Bill Staley and Hayley Mason – Authors of Make It Paleo and Gather.
Please note Sally Fallon Morell’s position on the Paleo diet by scrolling down to the word Paleo.

Download now, the opportunity ends November 7, 2013.

More Free Items

  • Also, today only someone will receive a Vitamix complimentary, as well as several other items of interest! Enter here:
  • Giveaways are offered daily this week: – click on the Giveaway tab to see what’s new each day.

Fall into Health Autumn Sale – 98% Discount

This is unique opportunity to learn about the dietary principles we teach in depth!

The bundle includes:

  • 47 ebooks
  • 15 exclusive podcasts
  • 3 online video classes
  • 2 meal plans
  • 2 e-zines and
  • 20 discount coupons from the kind of brands we recommend

Valued at over 2,000.00, these educational materials are offered for 39.00 or a 98% discount for one week only! This is the last bundle sale of the year.

I am honored that our e-book on how to nourish our children was asked to be included! 

Your definition of the word “nourish”?


Filed under Promotions